Hierarchical self-assembled structures based on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as advanced negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries and 3D microbatteries
This article has been published in the Journal of Power Sources, and here we present hierarchical structures based on carbon paper and multi-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes decorated with hematite nanorods for Li-ion battery applications. Our results have been published as an open access, so here you can download the published version.
Tiva Sharifi, Mario Valvo, Eduardo Gracia-Espino, Robin Sandström, Kristina Edström, and Thomas Wågberg.
Journal of Power Sources, 279, 581–592 (2015)
Hierarchical structures based on carbon paper and multi-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes were fabricated and subsequently decorated with hematite nanorods to obtain advanced 3D architectures for Li-ion battery negative electrodes. The carbon paper provides a versatile metal-free 3D current collector ensuring a good electrical contact of the active materials to its carbon fiber network. Firstly, the nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes onto the carbon paper were studied and a high footprint area capacity of 2.1 mAhcm-2 at 0.1 mAcm-2 was obtained. The Li can be stored in the inter-wall regions of the nanotubes, mediated by the defects formed on their walls by the nitrogen atoms. Secondly, the incorporation of hematite nanorods raised the footprint area capacity to 2.25 mAhcm-2 at 0.1 mAcm-2. However, the repeated conversion/de-conversion of Fe2O3 limited both coulombic and energy efficiencies for these electrodes, which did not perform as well as those including only the N-doped carbon nanotubes at higher current densities. Thirdly, long-cycling tests showed the robust Li insertion mechanism in these N-doped carbonaceous structures, which yielded an unmatched footprint area capacity enhancement up to 1.95 mAhcm-2 after 60 cycles at 0.3 mAcm-2 and an overall capacity of 204 mAhg-1 referred to the mass of the entire electrode.
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